Materialna kultura savanskih šimpanzov v Senegalu / Material culture of savanna chimpanzees (P.t.verus) in Senegal

author: Maja Gašperšič, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana
published: Nov. 22, 2010,   recorded: October 2010,   views: 202
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Vedenjska opazovanja savanskih šimpanzov prinašajo dragocena spoznanja za razumevanje evolucije materialne kulture izumrlih homininov, ki se je najbrž razvila v podobnih ekoloških pogojih. Mnogo surovin suhih območij je zavarovanih, imajo trda semena ali pa rastejo pod zemljo, in vse štejemo za ključne vire prehrane v zgodnji evoluciji človeka. Eden od pomembnih vidikov prehrane v savani je bila morda povečana raba orodij za izbrskanje/ obdelavo težko dostopnih virov, kot so žužki, gomolji, stroki, oreščki in sadeži s trdimi lupinami. Ker dokazov o uporabi orodja pred Oldovanom še niso odkrili in je vedenje orodjarjev že davno izginilo, rekonstrukcije tehnologije prvih homininov temeljijo na spoznanjih o sodobnih nabiralcih in šimpanzih. Fongolski šimpanzi v Senegalu (Pan troglodytes verus) so spretni uporabniki orodja in tipično posegajo po razgradljivih materialih, kot so les (rastlinska orodja za lov na termite, mravlje in polopice) ali neobdelani kamni (nakovala za trenje baobaba). Skupina kaže nekaj posebnosti, npr. rabo sulic za lov na polopice, zatekanje v jame, namakanje v kotanjah. Del terenske raziskave obravnava uporabo orodij pri hranjenju z žužki, študija pa se osredotoča na tehnologijo tolčenja plodov baobaba. Primerjava »arheoloških « podatkov vključuje sosednje skupnosti šimpanzov in prazgodovinske najdbe iz Vzhodne Afrike. Analizirala sem tudi vedenjske podatke o trenju baobaba (prijem, raba rok, položaj telesa).


Behavioural observations of savanna chimpanzees have valuable implications for understanding the evolution of early hominin material culture which likely evolved under similar ecological conditions. Many foods in arid habitats are protected, have hard seeds or grow underground, and all have been proposed as key resources in early hominin evolution. A crucial aspect of savanna diet expansion might be an increased reliance on tools for extracting or processing “hard-to-get” foods such as insects, tubers, nuts and embedded fruits. As evidence for tool-use before Oldowan is not found and the behavior of tool-makers is long gone, the reconstructions of early hominin technology are based on findings from modern foragers and chimpanzees. Fongoli chimpanzees in Senegal (Pan troglodytes verus) are skilled tool-users and typically rely on perishable material such as wood (plant tools for termite fishing, ant-dipping or hunting prosimians) and unmodified stones (in baobab smashing). The community shows some peculiarities such as tool-assisted hunting, cave-use or soaking in natural stone- pools. A part of my fieldwork concerned tools used to obtain social insects, while the study in four seasons focused on percussive technology in pounding baobab fruits. “Archaeological” details were compared to neighbouring chimpanzee communities and to prehistoric hominin sites in East Africa. Besides analyses of elementary tools, behavioural characteristics (grip, hand-use, posture) are discussed.

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