O umetni biotski pestrosti človeške vrste – etični pomisleki / On Man-Made Biodiversity of the Human Species – Ethical Objections

author: Jože Trontelj, Slovenska akademija znanosti in umetnosti (SAZU)
published: Nov. 9, 2009,   recorded: October 2009,   views: 3373
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Znanost je dala ljudem v roke nove možnosti. Genska tehnologija omogoča spreminjanje genoma. Posebno v rastlinskem svetu je prišla že precej daleč. Gensko spremenjeni organizmi paradoksno niso povečali biotske pestrosti, ampak so jo zmanjšali. Tehnologijo so zlorabile multinacionale družbe; pred seboj imamo strašljivi zgled Monsanta, ki s svojo mednarodno 'policijo' nadzira, izkorišča in brezdušno izsiljuje armade kmetov po večjem delu sveta, mnoge ekonomsko uniči in spreminja v novodobne sužnje. Le malo manj oporečno je kloniranje. Lani se je Evropska skupina za etiko v znanosti in novih tehnologijah, svetovalni organ Evropske komisije, izrekla proti kloniranju živali za hrano. Sklep večje študije in potem priporočila je bil, da ljudje ocenjujejo tako početje kot nenaravno in etično nesprejemljivo. Poleg tega zanj ni dokazljive potrebe. Povsem nesprejemljivo pa je večini laične javnosti kloniranje ljudi za razplod, nekaterim pa tudi za namene raziskav. To je prepovedal posebni protokol k Oviedski konvenciji – o varstvu človekovih pravic in dostojanstva človeškega bitja v zvezi z uporabo biologije in medicine. Oviedska konvencija prepoveduje tudi posege v genom, ki bi imeli za cilj 'žlahtnjenje' človeka oz. njegovih telesnih in duševnih sposobnosti. Celo ko gre za medicinske razloge, na primer zdravljenje ali preprečevanje dednih bolezni, bi bil poseg upravičen samo takrat, ko njegov cilj ni povzročiti spremembe na genomu potomcev. Forum nacionalnih etičnih svetov Evropske unije je izrazil zelo zadržano stališče tudi do drugih postopkov s področja biotehnologije ali farmakologije, ki bi imeli za cilj izboljševanje sposobnosti posameznikov ali krojenje njihovih lastnosti po lastnih željah ali zahtevah drugih. Vendar je tu etična meja včasih zabrisana in med razlogi proti takim ravnanjem niso več zmeraj v ospredju pravice prizadetega posameznika, ampak tudi načelo enake dostopnosti do dobrin, do katerih so upravičeni tudi drugi. Tako se poleg nove biologije in medicine utegne poroditi tudi nova etika. Če bo nekoč dobila odločilno besedo, bo spremenila nekatere temelje sedanje civilizacije.


Recent developments in the biological sciences have offered new possibilities, among them genetic engineering. Genetically modified plants and animals have become a reality, although all ethical issues have not been resolved. Even more serious ethical objections have been raised against attempting genetic modifications of human beings. Since recently, a lot of experimental work is being done with embryos which are hybrids between man and different animals, particularly in the UK, after having been authorized by the new legislation. Even before, a number of different human-animal mixtures have been proposed and many have actually been successfully produced. Allowing such beings to be born and mature, as recommended by some utilitarian ethicists would open difficult ethical and legal dilemmas. The Scottish Council on Human Bioethics has called for a European ethical debate, but so far this has not been considered. Human-animal hybrids and chimeras, produced for industrial and military purposes, as well as for pleasure would change some of the foundations of our present societies.

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Reviews and comments:

Comment1 Cita, October 22, 2010 at 1:51 p.m.:

Zanimivo, kako na zborovanju darwinistov prof. dr. Jože Trontelj poudarja "dostojanstvo človeškega bitja".

Richard Dawkins, ki ga v slovenskem učbeniku evolucije za gimnazije avtorji večkrat citirajo kot avtoriteto na področju evolucijske teorije, pravi:

"The universe we observe has precisly the properties we should expect if there is at bottom, no design, no purpose, no evil and no good, nothing but blind pitiless indiference... DNA neither cares nor knows, DNA just is. And we dance to its music."

"We admit that we are like apes but we seldom realize that we are apes."

"What are all of us but self-reproducing robots? We have been put together by our gens and what we do is roam the world looking for a way to sustain ourself and ultimately produce another robot child."

Na takih prepričanjih seveda ni mogoče utemeljiti nobene etike, nobenih vrednot, nobenega človeškega dostojanstva ...

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