Vloga vrst v ekosistemskih procesih / Function of Species in Ecosystem Function

author: Ivan Kos, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana
published: Nov. 9, 2009,   recorded: October 2009,   views: 714
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Raziskave delovanja ekosistemov potekajo predvsem iz dveh izhodišč - holističnem in redukcionističnem. Bistvo izhodišča holističnega pristopa je v združevanju žive komponente v trofične nivoje ter s tem zanemari vlogo posamezne vrste. Z izkanjem funkcije biodiverzitete pa prihaja v ospredje redukcionističen pristop, saj je zaradi informacijskih razlik med posameznimi vrstami – populacijami jasno, da je funkcija v ekosistemu vrstno specifična. Prav zaradi informacijske bogate komponente v dobro razvitih ekosistemih je jasno, da ekosistemi niso preprosti fizikalno-kemijski sistemi ampak imajo številne lasnosti in zakonitosti, ki izhajajo iz življenja. Vlogo vrst-populacij tako lahko prepoznamo v nekaj osnovnih funkcijskih tipih: - so nosilci procesov kroženja snovi in pretoka energije, - vzdržujejo eksergijo, - sodelujejo pri oblikovanju življenskega prostora in pogojev v njemu, - oblikujejo medvrstna in znotrajvrstna razmerja. Med- in znotrajvrstna razmerja so kompleksna in imajo tako kratkoročen vpliv na stanje ekosistema kakor tudi dolgoročno vplivajo tako na razvoj populacij (strukturno, količinsko tudi genetsko), ter na različne ekosistemske procese. Seveda posredno tako vplivajo tudi na stanje in značilnosti celotne Biosfere oz. Zemlje kot biogenega planeta. Prav koevolucijski mehanizmi ter razvoj populacij v odvisnosti od abiogene komponente življenskega prostora vodijo v razvoj kompleksnih biodiverzitetno bogatih združb, ki zagotavljajo stabilnost in optimalno funkcionalnost ekosistemov.


Researches of ecosystem functioning have generally two approaches – holistic and reductionistic. The principle of holistic approach is association of live components in trophic levels and ignoring the role of single species. With searching for biodiversity function, the reductionistic approach is becoming more and more important, since because of information differences among individual species or populations, it is clear that their function in ecosystem is species specific. Because of rich information component in well developed ecosystems it is obvious that ecosystems are not simple physically-chemical systems, but have numerous characteristics and principles originating from life. The role of species or populations can be recognised in some basic functional types: they are the carriers of substance circulation and energy flow processes, they maintain exergy, they take part in formatting the living space and conditions in it, and they form interspecies and intraspecies relations. Inter- and intraspecies relations are complex and have short-term influence on ecosystem state as well as long-term influence on population development (structurally, quantitatively and genetically) and different ecosystem processes. Of course they also indirectly influence the state and characteristics of the whole biosphere or Earth as a biogenic planet. Just co-evolution mechanisms and population development in dependence of abiogenic component of living space lead to development of complex communities that enable stability and optimal functioning of ecosystems.

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