Marble: High-throughput Phenotyping from Electronic Health Records via Sparse Nonnegative Tensor Factorization

author: Joyce C. Ho, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Texas at Austin
published: Oct. 7, 2014,   recorded: August 2014,   views: 1910

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The rapidly increasing availability of electronic health records (EHRs) from multiple heterogeneous sources has spearheaded the adoption of data-driven approaches for improved clinical research, decision making, prognosis, and patient management. Unfortunately, EHR data do not always directly and reliably map to phenotypes, or medical concepts, that clinical researchers need or use. Existing phenotyping approaches typically require labor intensive supervision from medical experts. We propose Marble, a novel sparse non-negative tensor factorization method to derive phenotype candidates with virtually no human supervision. Marble decomposes the observed tensor into two terms, a bias tensor and an interaction tensor. The bias tensor represents the baseline characteristics common amongst the overall population and the interaction tensor defines the phenotypes. We demonstrate the capability of our proposed model on both simulated and patient data from a publicly available clinical database. Our results show that Marble derived phenotypes provide at least a 42.8% reduction in the number of non-zero element and also retains predictive power for classification purposes. Furthermore, the resulting phenotypes and baseline characteristics from real EHR data are consistent with known characteristics of the patient population. Thus it can potentially be used to rapidly characterize, predict, and manage a large number of diseases, thereby promising a novel, data-driven solution that can benefit very large segments of the population.

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