The Gene in Context: from Developmental Plasticity to Plastic Heredity / Gen v kontekstu: od razvojne plastičnosti do plastičnega dedovanja

author: Eva Jablonka, Tel Aviv University
published: Nov. 9, 2009,   recorded: October 2009,   views: 5504


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The gene-centered view, according to which genes are the most important determinants of development, the sole stuff of biological heredity, and the guide for the understanding of all aspects of evolution, has dominated biological thinking for the last 50 years. This view is now changing. In this lecture I point to the perils of “genetic astrology” – predicting the future and analyzing personality on the basis of DNA sequencing. I present a developmental approach to biology and evolution which stresses the importance of phenotypic plasticity and which incorporates epigenetic inheritance. This approach points to the many sources of developmental and hereditary variations, answers some of the puzzles that the gene-centered approach failed to solve, and leads to a more satisfying and fertile biological outlook and research.

Zadnjih petdeset let v biološkem razmišljanju prevladuje genocentričen pogled, po katerem so geni najpomembnejši dejavnik, ki vpliva na ontogenetski razvoj organizmov, edina osnova za biološko dedovanje in vodilo za razumevanje vseh vidikov evolucije. Ta pogled se v zadnjem času spreminja. V tem prispevku bom izpostavila nevarnosti "genetske astrologije", ki napoveduje prihodnost in analizira osebnost na podlagi zaporedja DNA. Predstavila bom razvojni pogled na biologijo in evolucijo, ki poudarja pomen fenotipske plastičnosti in vključuje epigenetsko dedovanje. Tak pristop pokaže na mnogo vzrokov za ontogenetske in dedne raznolikosti, odgovori na nekatere uganke, ki jih genocentrični pogled ne reši, in obeta zadovoljivejše in plodnejše raziskovanje v prihodnosti biologije.

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